What is the mortality rate of trench fever?

What is the mortality rate of trench fever?

The course of the disease is somewhat similar to Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but it is milder. The case fatality rate is under 3 percent.

Is trench fever fatal?

Trench fever is rarely fatal, but patients may suffer disabilities including myalgia, cardiac issues or neurologic complications following resolution [44,48].

What bug causes trench fever?

Trench fever is a louse-borne disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana and observed originally in military populations during World Wars I and II. Symptoms are an acute, recurring febrile illness, occasionally with a rash.

Did soldiers get sick in the trenches?

But the majority of loss of life can be attributed to famine and disease – horrific conditions meant fevers, parasites and infections were rife on the frontline and ripped through the troops in the trenches. Among the diseases and viruses that were most prevalent were influenza, typhoid, trench foot and trench fever.

What is trench syndrome?

Trench fever is a clinical syndrome caused by infection with Bartonella quintana; the condition was first described during World War I. Contemporary B quintana disease, commonly referred to as urban trench fever, is typically found in homeless, alcoholic, and poor populations.

What are the signs and symptoms of trench fever?

Symptoms and Signs. After a 14- to 30-day incubation period, onset of trench fever is sudden, with fever, weakness, dizziness, headache (with pain behind the eyes), conjunctival injection, and severe back and leg (shin) pains.

How long does it take to cure trench fever?

However, this technique can take up to four weeks, because this type of bacterium grows very slowly. By this time, the practitioner has often decided to treat the patient anyway. Erythromycin and azithromycin are both used to treat trench fever. Four weeks of treatment are usually necessary. Inadequate treatment often results in a relapse.

How does trench fever affect the homeless population?

Trench fever often affects the homeless population. Symptoms can manifest by a high fever, severe headaches, leg pain, and oftentimes a rash on the upper body. While it can be confused with a regular fever, this illness is unique in that it causes the patient to continuously relapse over a five-day period.

How does xenodiagnosis help to diagnose trench fever?

The most important fact supporting the diagnosis of trench fever is a history of contact with lice within the incubation period of the dis­ease. Xenodiagnosis — the feeding of clean unin­fected lice on a patient suspected of having the disease —is a useful diagnostic aid.

How long does it take to recover from trench fever?

Although recovery is usually complete in 1 to 2 mo and mortality is negligible, bacteremia may persist for months after clinical recovery, and prolonged (> 1 mo) doxycycline or macrolide treatment may be needed.

What causes trench fever and what are the symptoms?

Trench fever is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Bartonella quintana. The disease is spread by the human louse and is characterized by sudden onset of fever, headaches, myalgias, shin pain, arthralgia, and cutaneous lesions on the chest and back.

How long does trench fever last with doxycycline?

Trench fever and chronic bacteraemia: doxycycline 200 mg orally daily for 28 days combined with gentamicin 3 mg/kg/day intravenous for 14 days. Endocarditis: doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for six weeks combined with gentamicin 3 mg/kg/day intravenous for 14 days.

How is trench fever treated in a pregnant woman?

Teratogenic and congenital effects of maternal infection are unknown, as is the impact on pregnancy. Uncomplicated trench fever can be treated with oral Doxycycline at 200 mg once daily for 4 weeks and intravenous gentamicin 3 mg per kg body weight per day for 2 weeks 12).