What is ectopic bone formation?

What is ectopic bone formation?

Ectopic refers to an object or human tissue that forms or is located where it does not belong. Ectopic bone formation is the laying down of new bone material (via a process called ossification) in areas, again, where this material does not belong. This ossification process is performed by cells called osteoblasts.

When does ectopic ossification occur?

HO usually occurs 3-12 weeks after spinal cord injury yet has been known to also develop years later.

What triggers ossification?

Causes. Heterotopic ossification occurs when the body gets signals mixed up, and bone cells begin to create new bone outside of the normal skeleton. The body constantly makes new bone to replace bone within the skeleton. When fractures occur in the bone, new bone is formed to heal the damaged bone.

How can you prevent ossification?

NSAIDs and radiation therapy are currently considered the gold standard in HO prevention [16, 17]. They act by modifying the microenvironment as they reduce the associated inflammatory process involved in HO formation.

What causes ectopic calcification?

This can be an indication of hyperparathyroidism, arteriosclerosis, or trauma to tissues. Calcification of muscle can occur after traumatic injury and is known as myositis ossificans. It can be recognized by muscle tenderness and loss of stretch in the affected area.

Where does ossification occur?

In long bones, ossification begins in the diaphysis during embryonic development, whereas ossification of the epiphysis does not start until after birth. In neonates, the ossification fronts move toward each other until only the growth plates (epiphyseal plates) remain between the metaphysis and epiphysis.

How can heterotopic ossification be prevented?

Combined radiotherapy and indomethacin was effective in preventing heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty. The evaluation of this efficacy compared with radiotherapy or NSAIDs alone should be the future target of larger randomized designs.

What are ectopic calcifications?

Ectopic calcification is defined as inappropriate biomineralization occurring in soft tissues. 1. Ectopic calcifications are typically composed of calcium phosphate salts, including hydroxyapatite, but can also consist of calcium oxalates and octacalcium phosphate as seen in kidney stones.

What is the difference between ectopic and heterotopic ossification?

The term heterotopic ossification (HO) refers to the presence of mature lamellar bone tissue outside of the bones that form the skeleton. 20 HO and ectopic bone are terms that are used interchangeably for this type of bone formation.

How big is the Bone Island of heterotopic ossification?

Heterotopic ossification knee Footnote: Heterotopic ossification at the posterior aspect of the right knee joint, there is greater than 1cm in length of the bone island is formed.

What to do about heterotopic ossification after irradiation?

Prophylaxis of high-risk patients, either with external beam radiation therapy or pharmaceutical prophylaxis with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or other agents, has been shown to reduce the incidence of HO. Fig. 113-1. Brooker grade IV heterotopic ossification occurred despite postoperative irradiation.

When do you need a bone scan for heterotopic ossification?

When the initial presentation is swelling and increased temperature in a leg, the differential diagnosis includes thrombophlebitis. It may be necessary to do both a bone scan and a venogram to differentiate between heterotopic ossification and thrombophlebitis, and it is even possible that both could be present simultaneously.

What does heterotopic bone formation mean?

Heterotopic ossification (HO), also known as heterotopic bone formation, is the presence of bone in soft tissue where bone normally does not exist. This condition should not be confused with metastatic calcification—such as may be seen with hypercalcemia—and dystrophic calcification,…

What is the medical definition of ossification?

Medical Definition of ossification. 1a : the process of bone formation usually beginning at particular centers in each prospective bone and involving the activities of special osteoblasts that segregate and deposit inorganic bone substance about themselves — compare calcification sense a. b : an instance of this process.

What is soft tissue ossification?

Ossification It is a natural process of the body in which soft tissues turn into a bony substance. However, in some cases, bone development occurs beyond the confines of the skeleton, which is commonly referred to as heterotopic ossification.