What is a normal methylmalonic acid level?

What is a normal methylmalonic acid level?

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels are commonly used to evaluate for vitamin B-12 deficiency. The normal value for MMA is < 3.6 μmol/mmol creatinine.

What is a high level of methylmalonic acid?

In general, normal levels of methylmalonic acid are between 0.00 and 0.40 umol/mL (micromoles per milliliter). Although higher levels of methylmalonic acid may be an indication of vitamin B-12 deficiency, elevated levels may not warrant immediate treatment.

What does low MMA mean?

MMA is excreted through your kidneys. Your body needs B-12 to make red blood cells and to help your central nervous system work as it should. Low levels of B-12 can cause anemia. This is when your body does not make enough red blood cells. This test is used to diagnose a mild and early shortage of vitamin B-12.

What causes high levels of methylmalonic acid?

Elevated levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) result from inherited defects of enzymes involved in MMA metabolism or inherited or acquired deficiencies of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or its downstream metabolites.

When should I buy methylmalonic acid?

The methylmalonic acid (MMA) test may be used to help diagnose an early or mild vitamin B12 deficiency. It may be ordered by itself but generally with a homocysteine test as a follow-up to a vitamin B12 test result that is in the lower end of the normal range.

What does a methylmalonic acid test show?

What is it used for? An MMA test is most often used to diagnose a vitamin B12 deficiency. This test is also used to diagnose methylmalonic acidemia, a rare genetic disorder. It is usually included as part of a series of tests called a newborn screening.

What conditions are associated with low levels of methylmalonic acid?


  • B12 deficiency, most often due to a B12-poor diet, issues with nutrient absorption, or drugs that deplete B12 levels (e.g. metformin) [2, 28]
  • Poor kidney function.
  • Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in short bowel syndrome [29]
  • Common harmless genetic mutations [22]
  • Genetic disorders [3]

How do you treat MMA?

Methylmalonic acidemia is treated primarily with a low-protein, high-calorie diet, certain medications, antibiotics and in some cases, organ transplantation. Medication treatment consists cobalamin (vitamin B12) given as an injection, carnitine, and antibiotics.

How is methylmalonic acidemia treated?

Treatment consists of cobalamin and carnitine supplements and a low-protein diet. The child’s diet must be carefully controlled. If supplements do not help, the health care provider may also recommend a diet that avoids substances called isoleucine, threonine, methionine, and valine.

What does methylmalonic acid test for?

What is the reference range for methylmalonic acid?

Reference Range. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels are commonly used to evaluate for vitamin B-12 deficiency. The reference range of MMA is 0-0.4 µmol/L (0-4.7 µg/dL).

How is methylmalonic acid used as a biomarker?

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of succinic acid from propionic acid, a step that involves the enzyme Methylmalonyl Coenzyme A mutase and a vitamin B12-derived cofactor. MMA concentrations increase when vitamin B12 is deficient; hence, MMA can be used as a clinical biomarker of vitamin B12 status.

How is vitamin B-12 related to methylmalonic acid?

Vitamin B-12 deficiency is thought to be related to improper absorption rather than a decreased amount of dietary vitamin B-12, as many persons who consume large amounts of the vitamin still have a deficiency. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is an intermediate in the propionate pathway.

What happens if you have high levels of methylmalonic acid?

This can result in increased levels of methylmalonic acid in the bloodstream. Therefore, the presence of high methylmalonic acid levels in people with kidney disease may not indicate the presence of a vitamin B-12 deficiency. High levels of methylmalonic acid are also common during pregnancy.

What are normal levels of methylmalonic acid?

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a substance produced in small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production. Generally, the normal levels of methylmalonic acid are between 0.00 and 0.40 umol/L (micromoles per liter). If you have symptoms like numbness, tingling in the hands or feet,…

Why is my B12 level high?

Elevated levels of B12 can be caused by cirrhosis, scarring of the liver. Decreased liver function corresponds to elevated B12 levels because the liver cannot maintain B12 properly and the remainder is dispersed throughout the body.

What is the optimal level of B12?

The normal level of vitamin B12 in serum is 150 to 660 pmol, or 200 to 900 pg/ml.

What is the abbreviation for methylmalonic acid?

Source. HTML. HTML with link. This workby All Acronymsis licensed under a. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0. International License. MMA is a shorter form of Methylmalonic Acid. MMA means Methylmalonic Acid. MMA is an abbreviation for Methylmalonic Acid.