What factors affect excretion of a drug?

What factors affect excretion of a drug?

Only relatively polar drugs are excreted in appreciable amounts by the kidneys. Factors affecting renal excretion of drugs include: kidney function, protein binding, urine pH and urine flow.

What are the two routes by which drugs can be eliminated into the system?

It is accomplished in two ways, either by excretion of an unmetabolized drug in its intact form or by metabolic biotransformation followed by excretion. While excretion is primarily carried out by the kidneys, other organ systems are involved as well.

What organ Cannot eliminate lipophilic drugs?

Lipophilic drug molecules are not directly excreted from the kidney. Only after they are metabolized into more hydrophilic molecules, can they be excreted through the kidneys into the urine. Drugs and their metabolites are also excreted into bile. This is usually mediated by protein transporters.

Where else does drug metabolism occur?

Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms.

Which factor is most important for drug metabolism?

Factors that affect drug metabolism The Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system is the most important pathway in this regard. In general, anything that increases the rate of metabolism (e.g., enzyme induction) of a pharmacologically active metabolite will decrease the duration and intensity of the drug action.

How are drugs removed from the human body?

Drugs are removed from the body by metabolism and excretion. Drugs or their metabolites may appear in breath, urine, saliva perspiration, feces, milk, and bile. But most is excreted in urine via the kidneys. Forensic Science.

What’s the best way to get drugs out of your system?

Drink at least 10–12.5 c (2,400–3,000 mL) of water throughout the day. The best way to flush any type of drug from your system is to keep your body very hydrated. Drink plenty water throughout the day.

How does the kidney eliminate drugs from the body?

In order for the kidney to eliminate drugs from the body, the drug must somehow be prevented from being reabsorbed from the urine into the bloodstream. The drug must be chemically changed into a compound that is less fat-soluble and therefore less capable of being reabsorbed.

How does THC get out of your body?

Any drug test identifies the metabolites from the drug they are testing for, which in this case is THC. Once you inhale the THC, it gets processed by the body. The main metabolite, THC-COOH (or THC-11-oic acid), gets absorbed by the fat in the body and slowly gets metabolized and leaves the body.