What causes atonia in sleep?

What causes atonia in sleep?

Disfacilitation due to reductions in state-dependent drives, such as serotonergic and noradrenergic drives during REM, may also contribute to the atonia. Clearly what is needed is an open view of a number of simultaneous possibilities that can cause atonia and not a single “holy grail.”

What neurotransmitter is involved in REM behavior disorder?

Brain cells called trigeminal motor neurons communicate the brain’s message to move to these muscles. Previous research suggested neurotransmitter receptors called ionotropic GABAA/glycine receptors in the motor neurons caused REM sleep paralysis.

What neurotransmitter triggers REM sleep?

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is at its strongest both during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep and while you are awake. It seems to help your brain keep information gathered while you are awake.

Which part of the brain produces atonia?

Other studies investigating the nature of supraspinal control of REM atonia have identified the dorsolateral pons and the medial medulla as two brainstem regions containing neural circuitry critical for producing REM atonia (for review, see Lai and Siegel, 1998, Chase and Morales, 2005).

What is the chemical that paralyzes you when you sleep?

Working with rats, neuroscientists found that the neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine caused REM sleep paralysis by ‘switching off’ the specialized cells in the brain that allow muscles to be active.

What does REM cycle mean?

During the night, you cycle through two types of sleep: non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Your brain and body act differently during these different phases.

Which sleep stage is most important for memory?

REM sleep is believed to be essential to cognitive functions8 like memory, learning, and creativity9. REM sleep is known for the most vivid dreams, which is explained by the significant uptick in brain activity. Dreams can occur in any sleep stage, but they are less common and intense in the NREM periods.

How does the brain work in REM sleep?

Brain energy use in REM sleep, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism, equals or exceeds energy use in waking. The rate in non-REM sleep is 11–40% lower. Neural activity during REM sleep seems to originate in the brain stem, especially the pontine tegmentum and locus coeruleus.

Why is REM sleep known as paradoxical sleep?

REM is also known as paradoxical sleep or desynchronized sleep because brain activity is on the high, eyes move rapidly, but the rest of the body experiences muscle atonia, or a kind or temporary paralysis. This happens when pons, a brain area from which REM sleep signals are sent out, blocks signals sent to the spinal cord.

Are there any drugs that inhibit REM sleep?

Many widely used drugs inhibit REM as well, such as amphetamines, for example. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder characterized by REM sleep without atonia. This may be dangerous as numerous instances were recorded where otherwise calm individuals would turn violent towards their spouses.

How does nightcap affect your REM sleep cycle?

Although nightcap is a happy solution to many who want to fall asleep fast, it delays and reduces REM sleep. Apart from that, it increases the number of bathroom visits, which breaks up our sleep and interferes with our circadian rhythm. Many widely used drugs inhibit REM as well, such as amphetamines, for example.