What are the causes of the reemergence of TB?

What are the causes of the reemergence of TB?

foreign-born), urban residence, alcohol and drug abuse, being homeless, being exposed in crowded settings, including prisons, and having pulmonary tuberculosis [6, 7, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42]. HIV and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) were found to be risk factors in some settings, but not in others [40].

Why should we be concerned about tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person to person through the air. TB usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys, or the spine. A person with TB can die if they do not get treatment.

How can drug resistance be avoided in the case of TB?

The most important way to prevent the spread of drug-resistant TB is to take all TB drugs exactly as prescribed by the health care provider. No doses should be missed and treatment should not be stopped early.

Why does TB become a serious health problem?

Most TB cases are caused by inhaling the bacteria. People can get TB when an infected person coughs, sneezes, speaks, sings, or laughs. Tuberculosis has been around for thousands of years, but it did not become a major health problem until the Industrial Revolution. Crowded living conditions helped it spread.

What is the difference between TB disease and TB infection?

Persons with latent TB infection do not feel sick and do not have any symptoms. They are infected with M. tuberculosis, but do not have TB disease. The only sign of TB infection is a positive reaction to the tuberculin skin test or TB blood test.

What factors have led to an increase in TB in the 1980s and 1990s?

This resurgence was fueled by the following factors: The onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic; • Increases in immigration of persons from countries where TB disease was common; • TB transmission in congregate settings; and • The development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB.

Is the re-emergence of tuberculosis a global emergency?

Re-emergence of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases that are making a world wide come back. As early as 1993 the world health organization (WHO) declared TB a ‘’global emergency” and medical experts feared that tuberculosis may eventually become untreatable due to its high prevalence.

Which is an example of a resurgence of tuberculosis?

The breakdown or lack of adequate public health infrastructure has been shown to contribute to resurgence of this disease. One of the best examples is the outbreak of multidrug resistant TB (MDRTB) in New York City in the mid-1980s.

Why is TB so common in the world?

This may be due to other factors such as crowding and malnutrition. TB is also seen more commonly in alcoholics and drug abusers. In addition, there is increased mobilization of the world’s population. People are moving to seek better economic opportunities and better lives for themselves and their families.

Why is tuberculosis on the rise in Africa?

In Africa, TB incidence increased steeply as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic; conventional control measures were unable to control TB there [ 10 ]. Finally, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant TB in eastern Europe and beyond is of major concern [ 11, 12 ].