Is vitamin D bound to plasma protein?

Is vitamin D bound to plasma protein?

As noted in the text, vitamin D (OH) metabolites are bound to D Binding Protein (DBP) and to a lesser extent albumin in the circulation. These cross the cell membrane as the free (unbound) metabolite in most tissue.

Is vitamin D protein bound?

Vitamin D and all its metabolites are bound to a specific vitamin D binding protein, DBP. This protein was originally first discovered by its worldwide polymorphism and called Group-specific Component (GC). We now know that DBP and GC are the same protein and appeared early in the evolution of vertebrates.

How is vitamin D transported in the blood?

Vitamin D and its hydroxylated metabolites are transported in the blood, bound to a transport protein. For this purpose, cartilaginous fish and amphibia use lipoproteins but bony fish, reptiles, birds and mammals have a specific vitamin D-binding protein, called DBP.

Does vitamin D bind to a receptor?

The vitamin D receptor (VDR also known as the calcitriol receptor) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. Calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-(OH)2vitamin D3) binds to VDR, which then forms a heterodimer with the retinoid-X receptor.

What does vitamin D binding protein do?

Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is the major carrier protein of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) in the circulation, where it may serve roles in maintaining stable levels during times of decreased 25(OH) availability and in regulating delivery of 25(OH) D to target tissues.

Is vitamin D3 a protein?

Which vitamin is antagonist of vitamin D?

Fluoro-vitamin D3
6-Fluoro-vitamin D3: a new antagonist of the biological actions of vitamin D3 and its metabolites which interacts with the intestinal receptor for 1 alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3.

How does vitamin D regulate the immune system?

Vitamin D has numerous effects on cells within the immune system. It inhibits B cell proliferation and blocks B cell differentiation and immunoglobulin secretion[31-32]. Vitamin D additionally suppresses T cell proliferation[33] and results in a shift from a Th1 to a Th2 phenotype[34-35].

Is vitamin D easily absorbed?

Better Absorbed With Meals Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning that it does not dissolve in water and is absorbed best in your bloodstream when paired with high-fat foods. For this reason, it’s recommended to take vitamin D supplements with a meal to enhance absorption.

Where are vitamin D metabolites transported in the body?

The vitamin D metabolites are transported in blood bound to DBP and albumin. Very little circulates as the free form. The liver produces DBP and albumin, production that is decreased in liver disease, and these proteins may be lost in protein losing enteropathies or the nephrotic syndrome.

What is the function of vitamin D binding protein?

The human serum vitamin-D-binding protein (DBP) has many physiologically important functions, ranging from transporting vitamin D 3 metabolites, binding and sequestering globular actin and binding fatty acids to possible roles in inflammation and in the immune system.

What is vitamin D protein?

Vitamin D-binding protein belongs to the albumin gene family, together with human serum albumin and alpha-fetoprotein. It is a multifunctional protein found in plasma, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and on the surface of many cell types.

Where does vitamin D response element ( VDR ) bind?

The VDR upon binding to 1,25(OH)2D heterodimerizes with other nuclear hormone receptors, in particular the family of retinoid X receptors. This complex then binds to special DNA sequences called vitamin D response elements (VDRE) generally within the genes it regulates.