How do transcription inhibitors work?

How do transcription inhibitors work?

A general transcription inhibition results in p53 accumulation, which activates transcription of p53 target genes, such as p21CIP and Hdm2,19–21 and promotes p53 translocation into mitochondria leading to apoptosis.

How do pyrimidine antagonists work?

The pyrimidine antagonists act to block the synthesis of pyrimidine containing nucleotides (C and T in DNA; C and U in RNA). The drugs used to block the construction of these nucleotides have structures that are similar to the natural compound.

Which drug inhibits the initiation step of translation?

Among the known inhibitors of eukaryotic translation is cycloheximide (CHX, 1), the most common laboratory reagent used to inhibit protein synthesis (Fig. 1). CHX has been shown to block the elongation phase of eukaryotic translation. It binds the ribosome and inhibits eEF2-mediated translocation2.

What does selective toxicity mean?

Selective toxicity refers to: Antimicrobials that are toxic to both human and microbial cells. Antimicrobials that are toxic to neither human or microbial cells. Antimicrobials that are more toxic to human than microbial cells. Antimicrobials that are more toxic to microbial than human cells.

Does mRNA copy DNA?

Although the mRNA contains the same information, it is not an identical copy of the DNA segment, because its sequence is complementary to the DNA template. Transcription is carried out by an enzyme called RNA polymerase and a number of accessory proteins called transcription factors.

Which drug inhibits transcription in prokaryotes?

Abstract. Fidaxomicin was recently approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. It inhibits transcription by bacterial RNA polymerase.

Which drug is pyrimidine antagonist?

Pyrimidine antagonists, for example, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cytarabine (ara-C) and gemcitabine (dFdC), are widely used in chemotherapy regimes for colorectal, breast, head and neck, non-small-cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and leukaemias.

What should patients using 5-FU expect with treatment?

5FU can cause a rash, which may be itchy. During treatment and for several months afterwards, you will be more sensitive to the sun and your skin may burn more easily than usual. You can still go out in the sun, but: use a suncream with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30.

Are examples of drugs that inhibit protein synthesis?

The following are the medications that are protein synthesis inhibitors.

  • Tetracycline and glycylcycline.
  • Oxazolidinones.
  • Amphenicols and pleuromutilins.
  • Macrolides and ketolides.
  • Lincosamides.
  • Streptogramins.

What is an example of selective toxicity?

Therefore, antibacterials that target cell wall biosynthesis are bactericidal in their action. Because human cells do not make peptidoglycan, this mode of action is an excellent example of selective toxicity. Penicillin, the first antibiotic discovered, is one of several antibacterials within a class called β-lactams.

What makes a drug selectively toxic?

An important quality for an antimicrobial drug is selective toxicity, meaning that it selectively kills or inhibits the growth of microbial targets while causing minimal or no harm to the host.